Jul 02

Thoughts on the Mahican-Mohawk Trail

Thoughts on the Mahican-Mohawk Trail

… and on the history of the original natives of the area where I live (including eastern New York as well as western Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut).

I mean this to be a working entry. In other words, I will change and add to this post as I have time and new information. Forgive the rambling nature of the writing; keep in mind that it is a work in progress.

I hasten to add that I am not an historian, and I rely on casual research that I have done on the internet, as well as other reading I have done, and stories I have heard from my family members as well as from members of the Stockbridge-Munsee Community (descendants of the original inhabitants of this area). I expect I will make many errors, and I will attempt to correct them as I learn more.

Also, in trying to keep this entry somewhat manageable, I have simplified many things, and have not always acknowledged that there are often multiple interpretations of names and events. Also, for convenience, I will sometimes use the current names for places or features (such as “the Hudson River”) even though they obviously had different names before the Europeans arrived.

Documenting the History of the Mohicans

The original inspiration for this investigation came from some trips along a portion of Mahican-Mohawk Trail by the Berkshire Hikers. We hiked the section within BNRC’s Hoosac Range Reserve. This relatively easy hike along the ridge starts at the parking lot on route 2 in North Adams, just above the Hairpin Turn, and goes south for about 3 miles, with the return route being nearly identical, for a nice 6-mile hike. Along the way, there are spectacular views to both the east and the west.

This trail passes over the historic Hoosac Tunnel, which has a storied history. It first opened for business in 1875, and is still in use today. Our leader, Bess, did some research on the origins of the tunnel, and its construction, and shared what she had learned when our group arrived at the place on the trail that is directly over the tunnel; not far from the infamous Central Shaft, in which many workers died.

I offered to look into some of the earlier history of the area. In particular, I had always been puzzled by why the automobile route, now designated as route 2, had come to be known as The Mohawk Trail, when I knew that the Mohawks had not lived around here.

My Family Connection

I became interested in the Mohicans when I was very young. My grandmother Wilcox was a librarian in Stockbridge, where I grew up, and she had started The Historical Room in the library. I frequently went to her office after school; it was cool and quiet, in the basement of the library; far from the chaotic regimes of home and school. It was a sanctuary for me, where I could read and do my homework in peace. In a world that didn’t understand autism, it was one of the ways I created accommodations for myself (I can see now, in retrospect). As a bonus, my grandmother would sometimes tell me stories, and show me things in her collection. But I digress (not for the last time, I promise you).

My grandmother had a close connection with the Stockbridge Indians, both as an historian and in real life.

to be continued…

I just love the flowery language in these old books, and the words and phrases that are at once archaic and erudite. I will, for example, humbly attempt to perform the office of cicerone.

This oft-cited book, by Electa Jones, starts out with a bang, and reveals the startling advances in our knowledge that have occurred during the century-and-a-half since the book was published. I have not (yet) seen an attempt at a definitive timeline of when the Algonquins arrived in this area, but it almost certainly preceded the time of the Sycthian empire in central Asia (dating back to about 3,000 years before the present time).


Spellings, Pronunciation, and Language

Address of the Mohican News publication

I’ve already used two different spellings of the short name, used by the English, of the native people: Mahican and Mohican. They are both pronounced Muh-HEE-can, although there are many variations that appear to be acceptable. I’ve shown here ^ the address of the newsletter of the tribe; they currently reside in Wisconsin. The name of the people is variously reported as seen here (Moh He Con Nuck), and as “Muh-he-ka-neew” or “Muhhekunneuw” and any number of other versions. The neuw/neew suffix seems to have been the singular form.

Similarly, the precise translation of this phrase is elusive. The problem is twofold here. For one thing, like most (perhaps all) of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the Mohicans did not have a written language; only an oral tradition to recall their history. The second factor is that the language died out as it was originally spoken. Currently, there are no living persons who grew up speaking the language. There are only a handful of native speakers of similar, related languages. The Dutch evidently had several spellings for what they heard, including Mahikander (sounds kinda Dutch), Maikan, and Mawhickon. The English version was Mahican/Mohican, and the French had their own name, not taken from the people: Loups (wolves). Other variations are given by Jones [p 14].

Fortunately, there exist dictionaries that were recorded by Europeans during the colonial era. The spellings and pronunciations of Mohican words that were adopted by the Europeans were heavily influenced by the native language of those who first encountered them. This area was at the confluence of English, French, and Dutch attempts to achieve hegemony.

Muh-he-can-nook has been variously translated as “people of the continually flowing waters” or “people of the waters that are never still” or other variations. In the oral tradition of the people, the restless waters apparently referred to their place of origin in the west, perhaps the Pacific Ocean. Some have even speculated it might have referred to their passage across the Bering Strait, although that interpretation does not seem to currently have much support. The “flowing” of the waters seems to have originally meant the tides, as alluded to in Jones [p 15], so may have referred to their residence on the Pacific Ocean.

In any case, the people identified with the rivers in this region, which represented to them a connection with their origins. They, along with related tribes, became collectively known to the Europeans at the River Indians. Their own name for the river we now call the Hudson was Mahecanittuck.

“Mohican” and its variants refer to the moving waters, and the nuck suffix meant “people of” — the neuw/neew, as mentioned, seems to have been the singular form.

Similarly, the suffix we see spelled as “nic” or “nick” was a place designation. Thus, for example, Housatonic meant “the place where the river bends” (although I’ve also seen it translated as “the place on the other side of the mountains” [from the Albany area]), and Taconic/Takaughnick meant “the place in the forest.”

The Mohicans in this area eventually became known to the Europeans as the Stockbridge Indians, and the Stockbridge-Munsee Band in Wisconsin are descendants of those native people (along with some other native groups that they teamed up with on their long forced removal to the west).

There is an active effort in that community to reconstruct the original Mohican language. The challenges are obvious, but one piece of good news is that there are a few (3) elders of the Munsee tribe in Canada who are native speakers of that dialect, which is closely related.

The History of the Road now known as The Mohawk Trail

When the Europeans first arrived, there was an already-ancient trading route going over the mountains from the Connecticut River to the Hudson River. The English called this the Indian Trail, and, in order to facilitate their expansion into the western regions, they began to construct a road suitable for wheeled vehicles, beginning on the western side of the Connecticut River near their settlement in Deerfield. They more or less followed the Indian Trail, except where that footpath was too steep, or otherwise unsuitable for their wagons. This route eventually became the automobile road we now know as route 2.

I have some maps of the trail networks at the time of first contact with the European intruders, as well as some references to the early road-building by the English settlers.

How did the Mohawks get their name on the Trail?

The territory controlled by the Mohicans extended from the lower tip of Lake Champlain all the way down the the upper reaches of Manhattan, and from the Schoharie River on the west to the Westfield River in the east.

As far as I can tell, the portion of this road that came to be known as The Mohawk Trail is almost entirely within Mohican territory, except for the very eastern portion, which seems to have been controlled by the Pocumtuck tribe. And therein lies the tale…

The Mohawks made a name for themselves (in this context) with a single event that occurred in 1664.

May 28

A Peak Experience in Three States

Early Draft: to be revised upon completion of our hike tomorrow (May 29).

As of the night before, we have about 15 people signed up for a 6-to-7-mile hike tomorrow, featuring 3 peaks in 3 different states, and a bonus visit to the high-point in Connecticut (not its highest peak, although that is nearby).

We will start at the south end of East Street in Mount Washington, at the Massachusetts/Connecticut state line (bottom right center of the map below). The elevation at that point is about 1,900 feet. Our route takes us almost due west, weaving back and forth between the two states. The first stop is the peak of Round Mountain, which, at 2,296 feet, is the second-highest peak in Connecticut. Almost directly behind us, to the east, is Connecticut’s highest Peak, Bear Mountain, 2,320′, on the other side of East Street (which, south of the state line, is called Mount Washington Road).

This first half-mile, with its 400-foot climb, is extremely difficult, at times going up some rather steep rock faces. The views from the top of Round Mountain, however, make the effort worthwhile. We can look back to Bear Mountain, almost due east, and can see many other peaks, such as Mount Everett, Mount Ashley, Mount Race, Brace Mountain, and others. On a clear day (which we expect tomorrow), Mount Greylock is visible in the far distance to the north. Our 360° view also takes in Riga Lake and South Pond.

After taking in the sights, we will again move westward, this time dropping down along some more rock ledges. After a short descent, we will again head upward, and cross the state line, to the peak of Mount Frissell, which, at 2,454 feet, does not even make the list of the ten tallest Massachusetts mountains. There will be no need to pause here, because the summit of Frissell is completely surrounded by thick trees, offering no views. We will continue along the trail for another couple of hundred yards, which will take us into Connecticut. There, we will find a marker for the highest point in Connecticut, and enjoy some beautiful views to the south.

Continuing west, we will soon come to the 3-state marker, at the point that the Mass/Connecticut border comes to and end and the Mass/New York border takes over. Another ¾-mile trek brings us to the western end of the Mount Frissell Trail, where it connects with the South Taconic Trail.

At that intersection, we come out of the forest, to be greeted by spectacular views of the Catskills in the west, with lush farmland below. We are now at the farthest southwest corner of Massachusetts, although the state once continued to the west. We can look down on Boston Corner, which once defined that corner of the state. Stay tuned for the story of why that changed.

We have now walked about 2 miles; the most difficult part of the hike. Our journey from here will have some slight elevation changes, but will be mostly along the ridgeline. We will take a short detour south to have lunch at the summit of Brace Mountain, a popular place for paragliders. Also a popular place for rattlesnakes to sun themselves, so we need to be watchful.

After lunch, we will retrace our steps for a quarter of a mile, and plunge back into the forest. We will hike along the Ashley Hill Trail, going to the north until it intersects with the east-west Alander Mountain Trail. Once we reach that trail, we will turn right and go another half mile to the end of our hike at the Mount Washington State Forest headquarters.


Factoids

Round Mountain (not to be confused with nearby Round Ball Mountain, where we hiked a few weeks ago, or Rounds Mountain).

I could find very little information about Round Mountain. There are a couple of mentions in my Appalachian Trail Guide to Massachusetts-Connecticut (1994). Here is a Wikipedia entry for it:

Round Mountain, 2,296 feet (700 m), located on the border of southwest Massachusetts and northwest Connecticut, is a prominent peak of the Taconic Range. The peak and southern slopes of the mountain are within Connecticut; the northern slope lies within Massachusetts.

The mountain is located within the towns of Mount Washington, Massachusetts and Salisbury, Connecticut; much of it has been conserved as part of Massachusetts’ Mount Washington State Forest and Connecticut’s Mount Riga Forest Preserve. The south side of Round Mountain drains into Riga Lake and South Pond, then into Wachocostinook Brook, Salmon Creek, the Housatonic River, and Long Island Sound. The north side drains into Sages Ravine, thence into Schenob Brook, the Housatonic River, and Long Island Sound. Round Mountain is bordered by Mount Frissell to the northwest, Mount Ashley to the north, and Bear Mountain to the east.

Round Mountain is traversed by the Mount Frissell Trail which connects with the South Taconic Trail to the west and the Appalachian Trail to the east.

Similarly, there is very little historical information about the other two peaks (Frissell and Brace). There are plenty of articles about hiking there, and the other activities, such as high-pointing and paragliding, but nothing I could find about how they got their names.

Boston Corner 

In contrast, there are many well-written accounts of the prize fight that took place in Boston Corner (referred to as Boston Corners in some sources). One of these appeared in Sports Illustrated in 1973. Parts of this story (similar to other versions) may be apocryphal in the sense that the famous fight was symptomatic of the lawlessness of the area rather than the cause of New York’s annexation, which evidently had already been agreed (though not enacted) at the time of the fight.

 

May 01

Steve Silberman @AutismConnectMA

Autism Connections was honored to have Steve Silberman keynote our 28th Annual Autism Conference on April 27.

Among many other services, Autism Connections houses the Department of Developmental Services (DDS) Autism Resource Center for the western four counties of Massachusetts.

I was privileged to introduce Steve to the Conference.

I prepared remarks for the 15 minutes I thought I would have, until the organizers pointed out to me that they needed to make a few housekeeping announcements, and I should count on half that amount of time. So I trimmed my comments, which undoubtedly made them better. Here are my remarks, approximately as I delivered them.

 

Autism in the Age of Neurodiversity

Introductory Remarks for April 27, 2018 Annual Conference

by Michael F. Wilcox

Welcome, Everyone!

A special welcome to those who are here for the first time. For those of you who don’t know me, my name is Michael Forbes Wilcox, and I am the President of the Board of Autism Connections. I am not the first openly autistic person to serve on our Board, and I certainly won’t be the last. We’d like to have more.

A word on language. I’m well aware that some people prefer person-first language, and use the phrase “people with autism” or even the more neutral euphemism, “on the spectrum.” I prefer identity-first language.

I am an autistic person. I will use that language here in my remarks because that is what I am comfortable with, but please know that our organization respects all labels that are chosen by the people who must wear them. Our overriding principle is that people get to choose their own labels.

I first figured out that I’m autistic 13 years ago, when I was 59 years old. For those of you who are not autistic, allow me to do the math. [laughter] Yes, that means I am now 72 years young.

As if to compensate for our slow neural development at an early age, we autistics seem to age more slowly as well. We remain active intellectually and physically longer than our unfortunate neurotypical counterparts [laughter]. Or, so I am told.

This organization, like most autism organizations, was started for the purpose of providing assistance to autistic children and their caregivers.

Our first speaker, Steve Silberman, will have much to say about this history, I suspect; or, at least, his book NeuroTribes does.

In the early days of autism identification, not only was autism, in this country at least, thought to be a childhood condition, but it was believed to be almost always accompanied by intellectual impairment.

We now know that these ideas give a much too restrictive view of the wide range of autism. The very word “spectrum” came into use, at least in part, to promote the idea that autism is not related to intellectual capacity, nor is it confined to any other subgroup of the population. Autism is a natural, and widespread, condition.

Let me repeat that: autism is a natural part of the human condition. It is not a deficiency. It is not a disorder. It is a difference. It is a profound difference, to be sure. And one that many of us are very proud and privileged to own.

Years ago, when I embraced my autism, I launched myself into an advocacy role. As you might imagine, one of my major interests was, and continues to be, the provision of adult services. I’ve served on many Boards and advisory committees.

As Autism Connections expands our reach and implements new services, especially for transition age and autistic adults, we need your help. Whatever your skill set, believe me, we can use your assistance. If you are interested in helping with our activities as a volunteer, please contact me, or Karen Serra, our wonderful Director. Or, speak with any member of our staff, and they can pass along your interest to Karen or me.

And now, let me turn from asking you for help to introducing you to a source of some wondrous information that will enhance your understanding of autism, and the needs of autistic people. I am referring, of course, to our first speaker, Steve Silberman.

I am proud to count Steve as a friend. He is probably one of the few people I know who has more friends than I do. And such variety! Talk about diversity…

Music, for example, is very important to Steve. I can tell from his Facebook feed that he has been spending a lot of time lately with David Crosby. He calls himself a fly on the wall, but he’s being modest. He has produced albums and he is not an entirely passive player in the game.

When I heard on my local radio station that David Crosby would be appearing at Tanglewood in June, I burst out laughing. Not because that is, in itself, very funny. But I was immediately reminded of a story that you [looking at Steve] told me. [I did not repeat the story; it was an amusing anecdote of Steve’s, about another Crosby appearance at Tanglewood many years ago.]

Two years ago, Steve gave the keynote address for World Autism Day at the United Nations. Ten years earlier, such an event might have been filled with the gnashing of teeth and the gushing of pity for us poor autistic folks who would never amount to anything. Instead, Steve gave an impassioned speech calling for the full inclusion of autistic people. I think that was one of the best talks you’ve ever given.

Later on that program, our friend Ari Ne’eman introduced the crowd to sensory-friendly applause, acknowledging our borrowing from the deaf community. [I demonstrated the sign for applause]

I saw, in response, hundreds of people waving their hands in the air, and it brought tears to my eyes, to think how much the world has changed, even in the few short years I’ve been involved.

So, in a few moments, when you welcome our speaker, instead of clapping, give it a try!

You [again, looking at Steve] may remember the conversation we had at NYU when you appeared before the journalism school. You were asked how you came to be not just a reporter, but an advocate for autistic people. We talked about how, when you are black, or gay, or Jewish, or autistic, or belong to some other group that has been marginalized; discriminated against, misunderstood, picked on and bullied, excluded, and told in ways both direct and indirect that you are not welcome, you can easily develop empathy for someone else who belongs to a similar group.

I asked you if you had observed, as I have in the hundreds of autistic people I have come to know; a high degree of social awareness and a very common desire for social justice. You just laughed and said, “I think it could be a diagnostic criterion!” Do you remember that?

I’m not gay and I’m not Jewish, and Steve is not autistic. Yet, we have a lot in common. Here I am, trying to make a difference, and here you are, doing the same.

It is with enormous pleasure that I introduce to you my good friend, Steve Silberman.

 

Apr 29

Blogging Hiatus

I’ve not been a regular blogger lately.

That’s about to change (I hope).

I have been doing lots of writing over the past few months, but haven’t shared it here. I’ve given lectures and talks for which I’ve prepared notes, and I have more in the works.

Most of what I’ve just described relates to autism, and I’ve also been doing some extensive research and a bit of writing about various hiking venues (and their histories) here in the Berkshires. I’ll be sharing parts of that as well.

And on the autism front, I’ve had extensive conversations (online and in person) about the latest revelations concerning Hans Asperger and his relationship to the Nazis who were in power during the time he was first writing and speaking about autism. I’ve not completed my research on this topic, but let me just say that I don’t agree with many of the interpretations that have been written.

So there’s all that and more. You might want to stock up on popcorn.

Feb 12

The Parenting Spectrum

A recent article in the Washington Post has garnered some much-needed attention to a long-standing problem for the autistic community.

A mother tells the story of a family outing in a park, which she thought had been going very well.

It had been a good day at the park. A miracle day, in fact, for our family. Our 5-year-old son, who is moderately autistic and prone to violent outbursts and self-injurious behavior, had sailed through the outing without a meltdown. So it was all the more shocking when the police approached us.

Someone had called the police, suspecting that the kid was perhaps being mistreated. Nothing could have been farther from the truth.

I award these parents 5 stars for the way they handled the situation, and for their obvious love and acceptance of their son. On the parenting spectrum, I would place them far along toward the “good” end. [On the other end of the parenting spectrum are those parents who do not accept their autistic children for who they are, but engage in disrespectful behaviors such as looking for a “cure” or for “recovery” or try to “blame” autism on some external factor instead of accepting its underlying genetics.]

This mother’s concern is summed up in her plea:

The police were called on us because my son was having a bad hair day. What does this say about our society?

We need less worry and more support. We need less judgment and more acceptance. We need less of what my friend Sara Zaske, the parenting writer, has called “the destructive police-calling culture” and more true help and awareness. I would even argue that while it’s fine and necessary to help autistics adapt to a world that they perceive as hostile, we should also be actively trying to make the world a less hostile and more forgiving place for people who act and look a little different, and for those who love and care for them.

I also give her kudos for identifying her son as “autistic” — not as someone who “has autism” in the old “person-first” paradigm that is, thankfully, rapidly fading.

The only demerits I would give to the article are really more commentary on society’s misunderstanding of autism, rather than on the parenting on display here, which strikes me as extraordinarily winsome.

  • In the first quote above, the mother describes her son as being “moderately autistic” — I disagree with the idea that autism (or any disability) can be described as having degrees. Many of us who are autistic work very hard to avoid being identified as being odd, because our culture tends to treat differences and diversity very harshly. Some of us are more successful than others at overcoming autism’s challenges. To the outside world, this may look like different degrees of autism, but in fact, our performance is influenced by a myriad of factors that have nothing to do with autism.
  • At one point in the article, the author says of her son that in addition to being autistic, “he also has sensory processing disorder” — an idea which doesn’t ring true to me. Having sensory issues is part and parcel of being autistic. Autism is not a disorder (it’s a difference), and its unusual sensory processing comes with the territory; it is not a thing of its own. Another “disorder” that is likely non-existent is the so-called “social communication disorder” which also strikes me as just being another manifestation of being autistic.
  • In the vocabulary department, I note the common misusage of the word “nonverbal” to indicate “non-speaking.” Many, if not most, people who cannot speak do in fact understand words.

These small complaints arise from my autistic need for perfection. I realize the world will never accommodate my desire, and I am sometimes even willing to admit to the possibility that I might be wrong about some things. All of this contributes to my inherent anxiety, another part of autism that I have integrated into my self-understanding. I have never met an autistic person who thinks that being autistic is easy.

On balance, the struggles that come with autism are far outweighed by its advantages. Being autistic is a privilege and a joy.

Feb 11

Equivalent Lands

A piece of local (New England) history. Did you know? I had never heard this term, although I was familiar with some of the boundary problems that had existed between Connecticut and Massachusetts.

In the 1970s, I lived in Southwick Mass, which has a block of land that juts into Connecticut, and disrupts the otherwise straight line that is the border between the two states. The story I remember is that all of Southwick was once the property of Lord Southwick, and he didn’t want it broken up between two states. Now I find that was all hogwash!

I also didn’t know that Springfield (where I lived for 10 years prior to moving to Southwick) used to be part of the Connecticut colony. My father’s ancestry traces back to early English settlers of Connecticut, including the first Governor of Connecticut Colony. His parents were direct descendants of two of the “Founders” of Hartford (where I also lived for a time), John Wilcox (or Willcocks) and John Bidwell.

It seems that things were quite complex over those years of imprecise surveying, compounded by conflicting claims of territory.

Dec 11

Hello OLLI Interview: Autism in the Age of Neurodiversity

Advance publicity for my OLLI course on autism is in full swing. Last week (on December 6), I attended an Open House in Pittsfield and gave a short pitch, and then (on December 7) I appeared on local public access TV in a half-hour interview, available here.

The interview was a lot of fun, giving me a chance to give some of my background, and to tell my own story of discovering autism. The interviewer was kind enough to let me ramble on, and we ended up not having time to discuss one of the questions she had for me, and one related issue that I had been prepared to explain.

All of this will be covered during my course this winter, as I explore (and try to explode) some of the myths about autism.

The first missing item was one I had described to Virginia, in advance of our interview, that December 7 was always an emotional day for me, because it marked the anniversary of the death of the uncle I never knew. I described to her the almost unbearable sadness I experience when I think of how devastated my mother (and her parents) must have been to lose her only sibling.

Virginia, with her background in psychology, was aware that this account flew in the face of the common misconception that autistic people do not experience intense emotions, especially empathy. She asked me if I’d be willing to describe my experience, but, alas, we ran out of time.

Hans Asperger, one of the pioneers in describing autism, was very well aware of the rich emotional life of autistic children he met in his clinic. In commenting on his seminal 1944 paper, Uta Frith observed, “From Asperger’s descriptions throughout it is clear that he believed autistic children to be capable of having strong feelings, and to be disturbed only in their ability to manifest such feelings appropriately.”

I was also prepared to talk about one of the other myths of autism, as another example of the items that will be covered in my OLLI course. There is a thing called central coherence, often characterized as the ability to “see the forest for the trees.” Based on many research studies, it was mistakenly thought that weak central coherence was a central feature of autism.

To illustrate what had been done, here is an example of one of the tests that could have been used. 

A diagram such as this would have been presented to the research subjects with the question, “What do you see?” (Sometimes the same effect is created with geometrical shapes, such as having small squares within a large triangle.)

In results that were reproduced by several researchers, autistic people responded much more often than non-autistic people by naming the small letter (or shape) within the larger one. The conclusion reached by these researchers was that autistic people have (relative) difficulty seeing the larger picture.

“Whoa!” said MIT researcher Nancy Kanwisher. She suggested that maybe we are asking the wrong question. Given instructions that the answer being sought was “what is the larger image?” she found that autistic people performed almost identically (and perhaps a little better) on these same tests.

Her conclusion? Autistic people find the details more interesting, and that’s what they will report in an unstructured environment. They actually have no difficulty at all seeing the big picture. Bang! There goes another myth.

We’ll examine many such shortcomings of autism research, and discover ways that the autistic experience is genuinely different. I’m looking forward to a lively discussion.

Dec 01

2017 AANE Annual Conference: My Workshop on Language and Mythology

Click Here for an Outline of My Presentation

I will be conducting a workshop, as part of the December 2 AANE Annual Conference at Bentley University.

The outline is really just a teaser. I cannot possibly do justice to all of the topics listed, in the time allotted.

I hope to generate discussion and to get a feel for which topics (and maybe many others) might merit further exploration via some blog posts.

Just to be clear: the last section within the “Pathology” heading is meant to mock the kind of research commonly done, not necessarily to pick on this particular study. By using the language illustrated here (“pathology” and “abnormality” and “risk” and “inefficiency”) the researchers have clearly drawn their conclusions before they even begin their study. Adherents of the neurodiversity paradigm would flatly reject such derogatory labels being applied to autism. Instead, autism should be viewed as a different way of being, not as a “disorder.” The role of science should be to explore and explain differences, not to pass judgment on the natural order of things.

Dec 01

AANE Workshop: The Language and Mythology of Autism

The Language and Mythology of

Autism

The words we use reveal our values,

and the language we use can shape our beliefs.

To be autistic is to be neurodivergent,

and to be neurodivergent is to enjoy a different way of life.

Identity

Pathology

Euphemisms

 

Empathy

Functioning

Special Interests

 

Michael Forbes Wilcox, MA, CFA

http://www.mfw.us/blog/


 

Language

 

Identity

 

  • Neurodiverse versus Neurodivergent

  • IFL (Identity-First Language) “I am autistic.”

  • PFL (Person-First Language) “I am a person with autism.”

  • I am on the spectrum.”

  • Who gets to choose?

  • Is there a way to be inclusive?

  • The use of person-first language in scholarly writing may accentuate stigma

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcpp.12706/full

from: https://eclecticautistic.wordpress.com/2017/08/22/identity-first/

 

Pathology

 

  • Autism Recovery

  • The Social Model of Disability

“Autism is a disability when it is seen as a deficiency.”

  • Speaking versus Verbal

  • Comorbidity

  • Emotional Age

    • Stimming

    • Parent Organizations (cf. IACC spat)

    http://nosmag.org/parents-and-autistic-adults-clash-at-autism-committee-meeting-iacc-interagency-autism-coordinating-committee/

    http://www.mfw.us/blog/2014/07/15/whose-table-is-this-anyway/

    Abnormalities shown to first appear in brain networks involved in sensory processing

    • The origins of autism remain mysterious. What areas of the brain are involved, and when do the first signs appear? New findings published in Biological Psychiatry bring us closer to understanding the pathology of autism, and the point at which it begins to take shape in the human brain. Such knowledge will allow earlier interventions in the future and better outcomes for autistic children.

    • Scientists used a type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), known as diffusion weighted imaging, to measure the brain connectivity in 260 infants at the ages of 6 and 12 months, who had either high or low risks of autism. The lengths and strengths of the connections between brain regions was used to estimate the network efficiency, a measure of how well each region is connected to other regions. A previous study with 24-month-old children found that network efficiency in autistic children was lower in regions of the brain involved in language and other behaviours related to autism. The goal of this new study was to establish how early these abnormalities occur.

    http://publications.mcgill.ca/reporter/2017/08/pinpointing-the-origins-of-autism/

 

Euphemisms

 

  • HFA versus Asperger Syndrome

  • On the Spectrum

  • Our Kiddos

  • This Population

Mythology

 

Empathy

 

“From Asperger’s descriptions throughout it is clear that he believed autistic children to be capable of having strong feelings, and to be disturbed only in their ability to manifest such feelings appropriately.”

Uta Frith, on his 1944 paper

 

Functioning

 

Asperger said that [autism] encompassed an astonishingly broad cross section of people, from the most gifted to the most disabled. There seem to be nearly as many varieties of Autismus as there were autistic people.”

Steve Silberman in NeuroTribes, page 98

  • 50% of autistic people also have intellectual impairment”

  • one-third of autistics also have epilepsy”

  • Alexithymia

    Developmental “Delay” (as opposed to difference – cf. Kanwisher study)

  • Mirror Neurons

  • Altruism

  • Telephobia

  • Prosopagnosia

  • Mutism

  •  

Special Interests

 

Bleuler [1911] defined “autistic thinking” as

self-centered rumination and retreat into fantasy.”

Asperger observed that in “everything these children follow their own impulses and interests, regardless of the outside world.”

Silberman op. Cit.

 

Transition

 

A transition period is a period between two transition periods.”

George Stigler

 

Identification

 

Autdar” – is there such a thing?

How do we know someone is autistic?

Why do we identify as autistic?

 

Hall of Fame

 

  • Who gave this wonderful description of how the autistic mind works?

I am slow to learn and slow to forget that which I have learned.

My mind is like a piece of steel; very hard to scratch anything on it and almost impossible after you get it there to rub it out.

Bonus: which autistic person shares the same birthday?

 

Nov 28

Autism in the Age of Neurodiversity: Course Announcement

I am pleased to announce that I will be presenting a series of six lectures on autism in this winter’s Berkshire OLLI program. NB: the venue has been changed from BCC to Simon’s Rock.

One of my objectives will be to dispel some of the myths and misunderstandings around autism.

Here is everything you need to know. Feel free to contact me with any questions.

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